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BED BUGS















Overview


Bedbugs, or bed bugs, are small insects that prefer to feed on human blood.
Bed bugs, though not strictly nocturnal, are mainly active at night and are capable of feeding unnoticed on their hosts. They have however been known by a variety of names including wall louse, mahogany flat, crimson rambler, heavy dragoon, chinches and redcoat. Bed bugs cause a number of health effects such as skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms.
In the early 1940s bedbugs were largely eradicated as pests in the developed world. However this problem has increased in prevalence since about 1995. Because infestation of human habitats has been on the increase, bed bug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well. The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides. Bed bugs have been known human parasites for thousands of years.

Physical
Adult bedbugs are reddish-brown, flattened, oval and wingless. Bed bugs have microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 4-5 mm in length and 1.5-3 mm wide. Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects such as booklice and carpet beetles, or vice-versa.

Habitat
Bed bugs can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions. Below 16.1 °C (61.0 °F), adults enter semi-hibernation and can survive longer. Bed bugs can survive for at least five days at -10 °C (14.0 °F) but will die after 15 minutes of exposure to -32 °C (-26 °F). They show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 35-40 °C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones The thermal death point for C. lectularius is high: 45 °C (113 °F), and all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46 °C (115 °F) Bed bugs apparently cannot survive high concentrations of carbon dioxide for very long; exposure to nearly-pure nitrogen atmospheres, however, appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours.

Infestation Cause
Any dwellings can become infested with bed bugs in a variety of ways.
a).Bugs and eggs that "hitchhiked in" on pets, or on clothing and luggage.
b). Infested items (such as furniture or clothing) brought in.
c).Nearby dwellings or infested items, if there are easy routes (through duct work or false ceilings)
d).Wild animals (such as bats or birds
e).People visiting from a source of infestation; bedbugs, like roaches, are transferred by clothing, luggage, or a person's body.

Feeding habits
Bed bugs are obligatory hematophagous (bloodsucking) insects. Most species feed on humans only when other preys are unavailable. Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxide, secondarily by warmth, and also by certain chemicals.
After feeding for about five minutes, the bug returns to its hiding place. It takes between five to ten minutes for a bedbug to become completely engorged with blood. "Although bedbugs can live for a year without feeding, they normally try to feed every five to ten days. In cold weather, bedbugs can live for about a year; at temperatures more conducive to activity and feeding, about 5 months.

Health effects and infestations
A number of health effects may occur due to bedbugs including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms. Although bed bugs are able to be infected by at least 28 human pathogens, no study has ever found that the insect is able to transmit the pathogen to a human being. Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.

Detection
Engorged female bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) with eggs, discovered in the screw hole of a wooden bed frame .Bed bugs are elusive and usually nocturnal, which can make them hard to spot. Bed bugs often lodge unnoticed in dark crevices, and eggs can be nestled in fabric seams. Aside from bite symptoms, signs include fecal spots, blood smears on sheets, and moults.
Bed bugs can be found on their own but often congregate once established. They usually remain close to hosts, commonly in or near beds or couches. Nesting locations can vary greatly, however, including luggage, vehicles, furniture and bedside clutter. Bed bugs may also nest near animals that have nested within a dwelling, such as bats, birds, or rodents. The eggs of bed bugs are found in similar places that the bed bugs themselves are found and are attached to surfaces by a sticky substance.

Control
Eradication of bed bugs frequently requires a combination of pesticide and non-pesticide approaches. Pesticides that have historically been found to be effective include: pyrethroids others. Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time and there are concerns of negative health effects from their use. Mechanical approaches such as vacuuming up the insects and heat treating or wrapping mattresses have been recommended.
PestAgon Pest Control is committed to make your dwelling bed bugs free by adopting special Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques.

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